step 1), fewer other-gender friends (Hdos), and higher anxiety in mixed-gender situations (H3). Prior studies have not found any consistent moderating effect of student gender on the differences related to single-sex schooling, and we expected the school differences to be similar in boys and girls (H4). Nevertheless, we included student gender as a potential moderator as most prior studies did [4,13]. Across the two samples, we predicted that differences between single-sex and coeducational school students ple as the school differences may attenuate when all students were exposed to similar mixed-gender environments after graduation (H5). Also, we hypothesized that the potential school difference in mixed-gender anxiety was mediated by gender salience (Hsix) and mixed-gender friendships (Height).
People was indeed employed of four regional large colleges (that all of the-people, one every-guys and two coeducational) based in demographically varied areas in Hong kong. Professionals included Means step 1 to 6 (7 th to help you a dozen th values) college students except for the new most of the-females college, from which Means six students were omitted considering the school’s plan to own public test preparation. Forms had been administered of the a course professor when you look at the for every category. People completed tips toward centered parameters and reported their month-to-month family income, parental knowledge and age, variety of sisters and brothers, and you may ethnicity. This study try carried out in conformity to your information and you can recognition of one’s School off Hong-kong Human Search Stability Panel (HKU HREC). Students’ assent and you will inactive concur away from mothers otherwise guardians had been received ahead of investigation range. All victims provided created told agree according to the Report regarding Helsinki.
A total of 2083 students participated in the study (participation rate: 84%). Twenty-four subjects were excluded from analyses due to missing or extreme data (11 coeducational school students did not indicate their gender and 13 students reported extremely unlikely values on demographic variables). The final sample (N = 2059, Mage = years, SD = 2.03) consisted of 589 boys and 376 girls from the two coeducational schools, 416 boys from the all-boys school, and 678 girls from the all-girls school. This sample size had over 99% a priori power to detect small differences (.20 < d < .30) at ? = .05, two-tailed . Participants were mainly Chinese (89%). Among the four participating schools, the all-boys school and one coeducational school were in Band 2, while the all-girls school and the other coeducational school were in Band 3. All participating schools used Chinese as the teaching language. Some schools used spoken Cantonese and some used spoken Mandarin in class, but they used the same written language in formal printed materials. Therefore, the questionnaires were printed in Chinese. Consistent with prior research [3,4,8], participants from single-sex schools had parents with higher education level, t(2042) = -7.157, p < .001, and attended more academically excellent schools, t(2023) = -, p < .001, unequal variances, than did participants from coeducational schools. The average parental education level of the sample (i.e., between junior secondary to senior secondary) was similar to a representative sample of over 9000 students from local high schools, one from each of the 19 districts in Hong Kong . Detailed participant characteristics are presented in Desk 1 .
c step one = zero schooling/pre-no. 1, 2 = top, 3 = junior supplementary, 4 = senior secondary, 5 = post-secondary, 6 = postgraduate.
Sex salience measure
Gender salience are measured from the McGuire mais aussi al.is why approach . This measure has been shown getting associated with the otherwise affected from the sex structure [twenty seven,53]. Participants was indeed asked to offer three short answers every single from these two concerns: “Let me know what you’re” and you may “Tell me what you are maybe not”. They certainly were instructed to write down what they you will consider quickly. The latest answers were then coded because “gender-related” otherwise “non-gender-related”. Desk 2 suggests samples of this coding strategy. Answers was basically earliest coded individually by one or two programmers. Inter-rater precision was higher for all answers (most of the ? > .93). Disagreements have been next resolved by the conversations among them coders. The complete number of intercourse-relevant responses along the one or two issues is actually summed http://www.datingmentor.org/escort/fullerton to indicate gender salience.